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Overview

Stomach and pyloric valve

Stomach and pyloric valve

Your stomach is a muscular sac about the size of a small melon that expands when you eat or drink to hold as much as a gallon of food or liquid. Once your stomach pulverizes the food, strong muscular contractions (peristaltic waves) push the food toward the pyloric valve, which leads to the upper portion of your small intestine (duodenum).

Gastroparesis is a condition that affects the normal spontaneous movement of for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 the muscles (motility) in your stomach. Ordinarily, strong muscular contractions propel food through your digestive tract. But if you have gastroparesis, your stomach''t work at all, preventing your stomach from emptying properly.Gastroparesis is a condition that affects the normal spontaneous movement of the muscles (motility) in your stomach. Ordinarily, strong muscular contractions propel food through your digestive tract. But if you have gastroparesis, your stomach''t work at all, preventing your stomach from emptying properly.

Certain medications, such as opioid pain relievers, some antidepressants, and high blood pressure and allergy medications, can lead to slow gastric emptying and cause similar symptoms. For people who already have gastroparesis, these medications may make their condition worse.

Gastroparesis can interfere with normal digestion, cause nausea and vomiting, and cause problems with blood sugar levels and nutrition. The cause of gastroparesis is usually unknown. Sometimes it''s no cure for gastroparesis, changes to your diet, along with medication, can offer some relief.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of gastroparesis include:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • A feeling of fullness after eating just a few bites
  • Vomiting undigested food eaten a few hours earlier
  • Acid reflux
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal pain
  • Changes in blood sugar levels
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss and malnutrition

Many people with gastroparesis don''s not always clear what leads to gastroparesis. But in many cases, gastroparesis is believed to be caused by damage to a nerve that controls the stomach muscles (vagus nerve).

The vagus nerve helps manage the complex processes in your digestive tract, including signaling the muscles in your stomach to contract and push food into the small intestine. A damaged vagus nerve can''s disease or multiple sclerosis

  • Hypothyroidism (low thyroid)
  • Women are more likely to develop gastroparesis than are men.

    Complications

    Gastroparesis can cause several complications, such as:

    • Severe dehydration. Ongoing vomiting can cause dehydration.
    • Malnutrition. Poor appetite can mean you don''t cause diabetes, frequent changes in the rate and amount of food passing into the small bowel can cause erratic changes in blood sugar levels. These variations in blood sugar make diabetes worse. In turn, poor control of blood sugar levels makes gastroparesis worse.
    • Decreased quality of life. An acute flare-up of symptoms can make it difficult to work and keep up with other responsibilities.

    Gastroparesis care at Mayo Clinic

    March 30, 2019
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    1. Feldman M, et al. Gastric neuromuscular function and neuromuscular disorders. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 7, 2016.
    2. Gastroparesis. The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/gastroparesis/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed Nov. 7, 2016.
    3. AskMayoExpert. Gastroparesis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
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    6. Clinical guideline: Management of gastroparesis. Bethesda, Md.: American College of Gastroenterology. http://gi.org/guideline/management-of-gastroparesis/. Accessed Nov. 6, 2016.
    7. Bouras EP, et al. Gastroparesis: From concepts to management. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2013;28:437.
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    9. Camilleri M. Treatment of gastroparesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 6, 2016.
    10. Lembo A, et al. Relamorelin reduces vomiting frequency and severity and accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2016;151:87.
    11. Camilleri M. Novel diet, drugs, and gastric interventions for gastroparesis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2016;14:1072.
    12. Hasler WL. Electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 6, 2016.
    13. Stein BJ, et al. Gastroparesis: A review of current diagnosis and treatment options. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2015;49:550.
    14. Parkman HP. Idiopathic gastroenterology. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 2015;44:59.
    15. Levinthal DJ, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical. In press. Accessed Nov. 6, 2016.
    16. Lal Nikhil, et al. Gastric electrical stimulation with the Enterra System: A systematic review. Gastroenterology Research and Practice. 2015;2015:1.
    17. Lee LA, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine for gastroparesis. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 2015;44:137.
    18. Pasricha PJ, et al.Outcomes and factors associated with reduced symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:1762.
    19. Brown A. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 11, 2016.

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